Subchronic toxicity of 70 % hydro-ethanolic extract of Terminalia superba trunk bark Engl. and Diels (Combretaceae) in Wistar rats
Keywords:Terminalia superba, 70 % hydro-ethanolic extract, anthropometric, biochemical parameters, histological study
Terminalia superba is a plant used in traditional medicine for the treatment of gastric ulcer in Côte d'Ivoire. The aim of this work was to study the subchronic toxicity of a 70 % hydro-ethanolic extract of T. superba via the assessment of some anthropometric, biochemical and histological parameters in Wistar rats.Thus, except 20 rats of group A served as control group, which received orally distilled water at 10 mL / kg b.w., three groups of 20 rats each of either sex, received daily, by oral route, 70 % hydro ethanolic trunk bark extract of T. superba for ninety days respectively 250 (group B), 500 (group C) and 750 (group D) mg/kg b.w. Two¶ satellite groups of 10 rats each were constituted in order to check the possible reversibility of the side effects or the occurrence of delayed effects,¶ 30 days after stopping the treatment i.e the 120th day. The rats were weighed every week. Blood samples were taken by ocular puncture on days 0, 60 and 90 and collected in dry tubes from fasted rats previously anesthetized with ether in order to assess 70 % HEE extract impact on some biochemical parameter levels such as amino transaminase (AST and ALT), direct and total bilirubin, urea, creatinine, potassium, sodium, triglycerides, total, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterols and glycemia. At the end of the 90 or 120 days, rats were sacrificed and the liver, the kidneys and the heart were removed and weighed. The relative organ weights were determined and a histological study was carried out on these organs. The analysis of the results showed that the weight gain of all rats treated with 70 % HEE was significantly (P <0.05) lower than control rats. 7The 70 % HEE did not interfere with the relative organ weights of the organs. This extract caused a significant decrease (p <0.05) in total bilirubin, potassium, triglycerides levels at 750 mg/kg b.w. and induced a significant (p <0.05) increase in creatinine and HDL-c levels at the same dose. The histological analysis revealed hepatic infiltration and steatosis, atrophied glomeruli in rats treated with 70 % HEE at 750 mg/kg b.w. were observed. HEE 70 % did not induce any damage to heart. However, abnormalities seen in liver and kidneys resolved after stopping the administration of HEE 70 %. In conclusion, HEE 70 % administered at 500 mg/kg b.w. was not toxic but at 750 mg / kg b.w. (high dose), it involved reversible body damages.
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